Protocol to the 1980 Treaty (1995)

Protocol to the 1980 Treaty (1995)
Date of Conclusion: 17 March 1995.

Entry into Force: 9 November 1995.

Effective Date: 1 January 1996 (see Article 21).
PROTOCOL AMENDING THE CONVENTION BETWEEN
 CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND ON CAPITAL
SIGNED AT WASHINGTON ON SEPTEMBER 26 1980
AS AMENDED BY THE PROTOCOLS
SIGNED ON JUNE 14 1983 AND MARCH 28 1984
Article 1

Paragraphs 2 to 4 of Article II (Taxes covered) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, the taxes existing on March 17, 1995 to which the Convention shall apply are:

(a) in the case of Canada, the taxes imposed by the Government of Canada under the Income Tax Act; and

(b) in the case of the United States, the Federal income taxes imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. However, the Convention shall apply to:

(i) the United States accumulated earnings tax and personal holding company tax, to the extent, and only to the extent, necessary to implement the provisions of paragraphs 5 and 8 of Article X (Dividends);

(ii) the United States excise taxes imposed with respect to private foundations, to the extent, and only to the extent, necessary to implement the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article XXI (Exempt organizations);

(iii) the United States social security taxes, to the extent, and only to the extent, necessary to implement the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article XXIV (Elimination of double taxation) and paragraph 4 of Article XXIX (Miscellaneous rules); and

(iv) the United States estate taxes imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to the extent, and only to the extent, necessary to implement the provisions of paragraph 3(g) of Article XXVI (Mutual agreement procedure) and Article XXIXB (Taxes imposed by reason of death).

  1. The Convention shall apply also to:

(a) any taxes identical or substantially similar to those taxes to which the Convention applies under paragraph 2; and

(b) taxes on capital;

which are imposed after March 17, 1995 in addition to, or in place of, the taxes to which the Convention applies under paragraph 2.”
Article 2

Subparagraphs (c) and (d) of paragraph 1 of Article III (General definitions) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“(c) the term “Canadian tax” means the taxes referred to in Article II (Taxes covered) that are imposed on income by Canada;

(d) the term “United States tax” means the taxes referred to in Article II (Taxes covered), other than in subparagraph (b)(i) to (iv) of paragraph 2 thereof, that are imposed on income by the United States;”
Article 3

  1. Paragraph 1 of Article IV (Residence) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident” of a Contracting State means any person that, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of that person’s domicile, residence, citizenship, place of management, place of incorporation or any other criterion of a similar nature, but in the case of an estate or trust, only to the extent that income derived by the estate or trust is liable to tax in that State, either in its hands or in the hands of its beneficiaries. For the purposes of this paragraph, an individual who is not a resident of Canada under this paragraph and who is a United States citizen or an alien admitted to the United States for permanent residence (a “green card” holder) is a resident of the United States only if the individual has a substantial presence, permanent home or habitual abode in the United States, and that individual’s personal and economic relations are closer to the United States than to any third state. The term “resident” of a Contracting State is understood to include:

(a) the Government of that State or a political subdivision or local authority thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any such government, subdivision or authority, and

(b)(i) a trust, organization or other arrangement that is operated exclusively to administer or provide pension, retirement or employee benefits; and

(ii) a not-for-profit organization

that was constituted in that State and that is, by reason of its nature as such, generally exempt from income taxation in that State.”

  1. A new sentence shall be added at the end of paragraph 3 of Article IV (Residence) of the Convention as follows:

“Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a company that was created in a Contracting State, that is a resident of both Contracting States and that is continued at any time in the other Contracting State in accordance with the corporate law in that other State shall be deemed while it is so continued to be a resident of that other State.”
Article 4

Paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article IX (Related persons) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“3. Where an adjustment is made or to be made by a Contracting State in accordance with paragraph 1, the other Contracting State shall (notwithstanding any time or procedural limitations in the domestic law of that other State) make a corresponding adjustment to the income, loss or tax of the related person in that other State if:

(a) it agrees with the first-mentioned adjustment; and

(b) within six years from the end of the taxable year to which the first-mentioned adjustment relates, the competent authority of the other State has been notified of the first-mentioned adjustment. The competent authorities, however, may agree to consider cases where the corresponding adjustment would not otherwise be barred by any time or procedural limitations in the other State, even if the notification is not made within the six-year period.

  1. In the event that the notification referred to in paragraph 3 is not given within the time period referred to therein, and the competent authorities have not agreed to otherwise consider the case in accordance with paragraph 3(b), the competent authority of the Contracting State which has made or is to make the first-mentioned adjustment may provide relief from double taxation where appropriate.”

Article 5

  1. The references in paragraphs 2(a) and 6 of Article X (Dividends) of the Convention to a rate of tax of “10 per cent” shall be deleted and replaced by references to a rate of tax of “5 per cent”.
  2. Paragraph 7 of Article X (Dividends) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“7. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:

(a) dividends paid by a company that is a resident of Canada and a non-resident-owned investment corporation to a company that is a resident of the United States, that owns at least 10 per cent of the voting stock of the company paying the dividends and that is the beneficial owner of such dividends, may be taxed in Canada at a rate not exceeding 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends;

(b) paragraph 2(b) and not paragraph 2(a) shall apply in the case of dividends paid by a resident of the United States that is a Regulated Investment Company; and

(c) paragraph 2(a) shall not apply to dividends paid by a resident of the United States that is a Real Estate Investment Trust, and paragraph 2(b) shall apply only where such dividends are beneficially owned by an individual holding an interest of less than 10 per cent in the trust; otherwise the rate of tax applicable under the domestic law of the United States shall apply. Where an estate or a testamentary trust acquired its interest in a Real Estate Investment Trust as a consequence of an individual’s death, for the purposes of the preceding sentence the estate or trust shall for the five-year period following the death be deemed with respect to that interest to be an individual.”
Article 6

  1. The reference in paragraph 2 of Article XI (Interest) of the Convention to “15 per cent” shall be deleted and replaced by a reference to “10 per cent”.
  2. Paragraph 3(d) of Article XI (Interest) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“(d) the interest is beneficially owned by a resident of the other Contracting State and is paid with respect to indebtedness arising as a consequence of the sale on credit by a resident of that other State of any equipment, merchandise or services except where the sale or indebtedness was between related persons; or”

  1. A new paragraph 9 shall be added to Article XI (Interest) of the Convention as follows:

“9. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply to an excess inclusion with respect to a residual interest in a Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit to which Section 860G of the United States Internal Revenue Code, as it may be amended from time to time without changing the general principle thereof, applies.”
Article 7

  1. Paragraph 3 of Article XII (Royalties) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:

(a) copyright royalties and other like payments in respect of the production or reproduction of any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work (other than payments in respect of motion pictures and works on film, videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television);

(b) payments for the use of, or the right to use, computer software;

(c) payments for the use of, or the right to use, any patent or any information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience (but not including any such information provided in connection with a rental or franchise agreement); and

(d) payments with respect to broadcasting as may be agreed for the purposes of this paragraph in an exchange of notes between the Contracting States;

arising in a Contracting State and beneficially owned by a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State.”

  1. Paragraph 6 of Article XII (Royalties) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“6. For the purposes of this Article:

(a) royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated and not in any other State of which the payer is a resident; and

(b) where subparagraph (a) does not operate to treat royalties as arising in either Contracting State and the royalties are for the use of, or the right to use, intangible property or tangible personal property in a Contracting State, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in that State.”
Article 8

Paragraph 8 of Article XIII (Gains) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:
“8. Where a resident of a Contracting State alienates property in the course of a corporate or other organization, reorganization, amalgamation, division or similar transaction and profit, gain or income with respect to such alienation is not recognized for the purpose of taxation in that State, if requested to do so by the person who acquires the property, the competent authority of the other Contracting State may agree, in order to avoid double taxation and subject to terms and conditions satisfactory to such competent authority, to defer the recognition of the profit, gain or income with respect to such property for the purpose of taxation in that other State until such time and in such manner as may be stipulated in the agreement.”
Article 9

  1. Paragraph 3 of Article XVIII (Pensions and annuities) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“3. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “pensions” includes any payment under a superannuation, pension or other retirement arrangement, Armed Forces retirement pay, war veterans pensions and allowances and amounts paid under a sickness, accident or disability plan, but does not include payments under an income-averaging annuity contract or any benefit referred to in paragraph 5.”

  1. Paragraph 5 of Article XVIII (Pensions and annuities) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“5. Benefits under the social security legislation in a Contracting State (including tier 1 railroad benefits but not including unemployment benefits) paid to a resident of the other Contracting State (and in the case of Canadian benefits, to a citizen of the United States) shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.”

  1. A new paragraph 7 shall be added to Article XVIII (Pensions and annuities) of the Convention as follows:

“7. A natural person who is a citizen or resident of a Contracting State and a beneficiary of a trust, company, organization or other arrangement that is a resident of the other Contracting State, generally exempt from income taxation in that other State and operated exclusively to provide pension, retirement or employee benefits may elect to defer taxation in the first-mentioned State, under rules established by the competent authority of that State, with respect to any income accrued in the plan but not distributed by the plan, until such time as and to the extent that a distribution is made from the plan or any plan substituted therefor.”
Article 10

  1. Paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article XXI (Exempt organizations) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, income referred to in Articles X (Dividends) and XI (Interest) derived by:

(a) a trust, company, organization or other arrangement that is a resident of a Contracting State, generally exempt from income taxation in a taxable year in that State and operated exclusively to administer or provide pension, retirement or employee benefits; or

(b) a trust, company, organization or other arrangement that is a resident of a Contracting State, generally exempt from income taxation in a taxable year in that State and operated exclusively to earn income for the benefit of an organization referred to in subparagraph (a);

shall be exempt from income taxation in that taxable year in the other Contracting State.

  1. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply with respect to the income of a trust, company, organization or other arrangement from carrying on a trade or business or from a related person other than a person referred to in paragraph 1 or 2.”
  2. A new sentence shall be added at the end of paragraph 5 of Article XXI (Exempt organizations) of the Convention as follows:

“For the purposes of this paragraph, a company that is a resident of Canada and that is taxable in the United States as if it were a resident of the United States shall be deemed to be a resident of the United States.”

  1. Paragraph 6 of Article XXI (Exempt organizations) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“6. For the purposes of Canadian taxation, gifts by a resident of Canada to an organization that is a resident of the United States, that is generally exempt from United States tax and that could qualify in Canada as a registered charity if it were a resident of Canada and created or established in Canada, shall be treated as gifts to a registered charity; however, no relief from taxation shall be available in any taxation year with respect to such gifts (other than such gifts to a college or university at which the resident or a member of the resident’s family is or was enrolled) to the extent that such relief would exceed the amount of relief that would be available under the Income Tax Act if the only income of the resident for that year were the resident’s income arising in the United States. The preceding sentence shall not be interpreted to allow in any taxation year relief from taxation for gifts to registered charities in excess of the amount of relief allowed under the percentage limitations of the laws of Canada in respect of relief for gifts to registered charities.”
Article 11

A new paragraph 3 shall be added to Article XXII (Other income) of the Convention as follows:

“3. Losses incurred by a resident of a Contracting State with respect to wagering transactions the gains on which may be taxed in the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of taxation in that other State, be deductible to the same extent that such losses would be deductible if they were incurred by a resident of that other State.”
Article 12

  1. Paragraphs 2(a) and 2(b) of Article XXIV (Elimination of double taxation) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“(a) Subject to the provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions (which shall not affect the general principle hereof):

(i) income tax paid or accrued to the United States on profits, income or gains arising in the United States, and

(ii) in the case of an individual, any social security taxes paid to the United States (other than taxes relating to unemployment insurance benefits) by the individual on such profits, income or gains

shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains;

(b) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the taxation of income from a foreign affiliate and to any subsequent modification of those provisions — which shall not affect the general principle hereof — for the purpose of computing Canadian tax, a company which is a resident of Canada shall be allowed to deduct in computing its taxable income any dividend received by it out of the exempt surplus of a foreign affiliate which is a resident of the United States; and”

  1. Paragraph 5 of Article XXIV (Elimination of double taxation) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 4, where a United States citizen is a resident of Canada, the following rules shall apply in respect of the items of income referred to in Article X (Dividends), XI (Interest) or XII (Royalties) that arise (within the meaning of paragraph 3) in the United States and that would be subject to United States tax if the resident of Canada were not a citizen of the United States, as long as the law in force in Canada allows a deduction in computing income for the portion of any foreign tax paid in respect of such items which exceeds 15 per cent of the amount thereof:

(a) the deduction so allowed in Canada shall not be reduced by any credit or deduction for income tax paid or accrued to Canada allowed in computing the United States tax on such items;

(b) Canada shall allow a deduction from Canadian tax on such items in respect of income tax paid or accrued to the United States on such items, except that such deduction need not exceed the amount of the tax that would be paid on such items to the United States if the resident of Canada were not a United States citizen; and

(c) for the purposes of computing the United States tax on such items, the United States shall allow as a credit against United States tax the income tax paid or accrued to Canada after the deduction referred to in subparagraph (b). The credit so allowed shall reduce only that portion of the United States tax on such items which exceeds the amount of tax that would be paid to the United States on such items if the resident of Canada were not a United States citizen.”

  1. Paragraph 7 of Article XXIV (Elimination of double taxation) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“7. For the purposes of this Article, any reference to “income tax paid or accrued” to a Contracting State shall include Canadian tax and United States tax, as the case may be, and taxes of general application which are paid or accrued to a political subdivision or local authority of that State, which are not imposed by that political subdivision or local authority in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of the Convention and which are substantially similar to the Canadian tax or United States tax, as the case may be.”

  1. A new paragraph 10 shall be added to Article XXIV (Elimination of double taxation) of the Convention as follows:

“10. Where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived or capital owned by a resident of a Contracting State is exempt from tax in that State, such State may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on other income or capital, take into account the exempted income or capital.”
Article 13

  1. Paragraph 3 of Article XXV (Non-discrimination) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“3. In determining the taxable income or tax payable of an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State, there shall be allowed as a deduction in respect of any other person who is a resident of the other Contracting State and who is dependent on the individual for support the amount that would be so allowed if that other person were a resident of the first-mentioned State.”

  1. Paragraph 10 of Article XXV (Non-discrimination) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“10. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article II (Taxes covered), this Article shall apply to all taxes imposed by a Contracting State.”
Article 14

  1. Paragraphs 3(f) and (g) of Article XXVI (Mutual agreement procedure) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“(f) to the elimination of double taxation with respect to a partnership;

(g) to provide relief from double taxation resulting from the application of the estate tax imposed by the United States or the Canadian tax as a result of a distribution or disposition of property by a trust that is a qualified domestic trust within the meaning of section 2056A of the Internal Revenue Code, or is described in subsection 70(6) of the Income Tax Act or is treated as such under paragraph 5 of Article XXIX B (Taxes imposed by reason of death), in cases where no relief is otherwise available; or

(h) to increases in any dollar amounts referred to in the Convention to reflect monetary or economic developments.”

  1. A new paragraph 6 shall be added to Article XXVI (Mutual agreement procedure) of the Convention as follows:

“6. If any difficulty or doubt arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention cannot be resolved by the competent authorities pursuant to the preceding paragraphs of this Article, the case may, if both competent authorities and the taxpayer agree, be submitted for arbitration, provided that the taxpayer agrees in writing to be bound by the decision of the arbitration board. The decision of the arbitration board in a particular case shall be binding on both States with respect to that case. The procedures shall be established in an exchange of notes between the Contracting States. The provisions of this paragraph shall have effect after the Contracting States have so agreed through the exchange of notes.”
Article 15

A new Article XXVIA (Assistance in collection) shall be added to the Convention as follows:

“Article XXVIA

Assistance in collection

  1. The Contracting States undertake to lend assistance to each other in the collection of taxes referred to in paragraph 9, together with interest, costs, additions to such taxes and civil penalties, referred to in this Article as a “revenue claim”.
  2. An application for assistance in the collection of a revenue claim shall include a certification by the competent authority of the applicant State that, under the laws of that State, the revenue claim has been finally determined. For the purposes of this Article, a revenue claim is finally determined when the applicant State has the right under its internal law to collect the revenue claim and all administrative and judicial rights of the taxpayer to restrain collection in the applicant State have lapsed or been exhausted.
  3. A revenue claim of the applicant State that has been finally determined may be accepted for collection by the competent authority of the requested State and, subject to the provisions of paragraph 7, if accepted shall be collected by the requested State as though such revenue claim were the requested State’s own revenue claim finally determined in accordance with the laws applicable to the collection of the requested State’s own taxes.
  4. Where an application for collection of a revenue claim in respect of a taxpayer is accepted:

(a) by the United States, the revenue claim shall be treated by the United States as an assessment under United States laws against the taxpayer as of the time the application is received; and

(b) by Canada, the revenue claim shall be treated by Canada as an amount payable under the Income Tax Act, the collection of which is not subject to any restriction.

  1. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as creating or providing any rights of administrative or judicial review of the applicant State’s finally determined revenue claim by the requested State, based on any such rights that may be available under the laws of either Contracting State. If, at any time pending execution of a request for assistance under this Article, the applicant State loses the right under its internal law to collect the revenue claim, the competent authority of the applicant State shall promptly withdraw the request for assistance in collection.
  2. Subject to this paragraph, amounts collected by the requested State pursuant to this Article shall be forwarded to the competent authority of the applicant State. Unless the competent authorities of the Contracting States otherwise agree, the ordinary costs incurred in providing collection assistance shall be borne by the requested State and any extraordinary costs so incurred shall be borne by the applicant State.
  3. A revenue claim of an applicant State accepted for collection shall not have in the requested State any priority accorded to the revenue claims of the requested State.
  4. No assistance shall be provided under this Article for a revenue claim in respect of a taxpayer to the extent that the taxpayer can demonstrate that:

(a) where the taxpayer is an individual, the revenue claim relates to a taxable period in which the taxpayer was a citizen of the requested State, and

(b) where the taxpayer is an entity that is a company, estate or trust, the revenue claim relates to a taxable period in which the taxpayer derived its status as such an entity from the laws in force in the requested State.

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article II (Taxes covered), the provisions of this Article shall apply to all categories of taxes collected by or on behalf of the Government of a Contracting State.
  2. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as:

(a) limiting the assistance provided for in paragraph 4 of Article XXVI (Mutual agreement procedure); or

(b) imposing on either Contracting State the obligation to carry out administrative measures of a different nature from those used in the collection of its own taxes or that would be contrary to its public policy (ordre public).

  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall agree upon the mode of application of this Article, including agreement to ensure comparable levels of assistance to each of the Contracting States.”

Article 16

  1. Paragraph 1 of Article XXVII (Exchange of information) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes to which the Convention applies insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article I (Personal scope). Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the taxation laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the administration and enforcement in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes to which the Convention applies or, notwithstanding paragraph 4, in relation to taxes imposed by a political subdivision or local authority of a Contracting State that are substantially similar to the taxes covered by the Convention under Article II (Taxes covered). Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. The competent authorities may release to an arbitration board established pursuant to paragraph 6 of Article XXVI (Mutual agreement procedure) such information as is necessary for carrying out the arbitration procedure; the members of the arbitration board shall be subject to the limitations on disclosure described in this Article.”

  1. Paragraph 4 of Article XXVII (Exchange of information) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“4. For the purposes of this Article, the Convention shall apply, notwithstanding the provisions of Article II (Taxes covered):

(a) to all taxes imposed by a Contracting State; and

(b) to other taxes to which any other provision of the Convention applies, but only to the extent that the information is relevant for the purposes of the application of that provision.”
Article 17

  1. Paragraph 3(a) of Article XXIX (Miscellaneous rules) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“(a) under paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article IX (Related persons), paragraphs 6 and 7 of Article XIII (Gains), paragraphs 1, 3, 4, 5, 6(b) and 7 of Article XVIII (Pensions and annuities), paragraph 5 of Article XXIX (Miscellaneous rules), paragraphs 1, 5 and 6 of Article XXIX B (Taxes imposed by reason of death), paragraphs 2, 3, 4 and 7 of Article XXIX B (Taxes imposed by reason of death) as applied to the estates of persons other than former citizens referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article, paragraphs 3 and 5 of Article XXX (Entry into force), and Articles XIX (Government service), XXI (Exempt organizations), XXIV (Elimination of double taxation), XXV (Non-discrimination) and XXVI (Mutual agreement procedure);”

  1. Paragraphs 5 to 7 of Article XXIX (Miscellaneous rules) of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

“5. Where a person who is a resident of Canada and a shareholder of a United States S corporation requests the competent authority of Canada to do so, the competent authority may agree, subject to terms and conditions satisfactory to such competent authority, to apply the following rules for the purposes of taxation in Canada with respect to the period during which the agreement is effective:

(a) the corporation shall be deemed to be a controlled foreign affiliate of the person;

(b) all the income of the corporation shall be deemed to be foreign accrual property income;

(c) for the purposes of subsection 20(11) of the Income Tax Act, the amount of the corporation’s income that is included in the person’s income shall be deemed not to be income from a property; and

(d) each dividend paid to the person on a share of the capital stock of the corporation shall be excluded from the person’s income and shall be deducted in computing the adjusted cost base to the person of the share.

  1. For purposes of paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the Contracting States agree that:

(a) a measure falls within the scope of the Convention only if:

(i) the measure relates to a tax to which Article XXV (Non-discrimination) of the Convention applies; or

(ii) the measure relates to a tax to which Article XXV (Non-discrimination) of the Convention does not apply and to which any other provision of the Convention applies, but only to the extent that the measure relates to a matter dealt with in that other provision of the Convention; and

(b) notwithstanding paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, any doubt as to the interpretation of subparagraph (a) will be resolved under paragraph 3 of Article XXVI (Mutual agreement procedure) of the Convention or any other procedure agreed to by both Contracting States.

  1. The appropriate authority of a Contracting State may request consultations with the appropriate authority of the other Contracting State to determine whether change to the Convention is appropriate to respond to changes in the law or policy of that other State. Where domestic legislation enacted by a Contracting State unilaterally removes or significantly limits any material benefit otherwise provided by the Convention, the appropriate authorities shall promptly consult for the purpose of considering an appropriate change to the Convention.”

Article 18

A new Article XXIXA (Limitation on benefits) shall be added to the Convention as follows:

“Article XXIXA

Limitation on benefits

  1. For the purposes of the application of this Convention by the United States:

(a) a qualifying person shall be entitled to all of the benefits of this Convention, and

(b) except as provided in paragraphs 3, 4 and 6, a person that is not a qualifying person shall not be entitled to any benefits of the Convention.

  1. For the purposes of this Article, a qualifying person is a resident of Canada that is:

(a) a natural person;

(b) the Government of Canada or a political subdivision or local authority thereof, or any agency or instrumentality of any such government, subdivision or authority;

(c) a company or trust in whose principal class of shares or units there is substantial and regular trading on a recognized stock exchange;

(d) a company more than 50 per cent of the vote and value of the shares (other than debt substitute shares) of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer persons each of which is a company or trust referred to in subparagraph (c), provided that each company or trust in the chain of ownership is a qualifying person or a resident or citizen of the United States;

(e)(i) a company 50 per cent or more of the vote and value of the shares (other than debt substitute shares) of which is not owned, directly or indirectly, by persons other than qualifying persons or residents or citizens of the United States, or

(ii) a trust 50 per cent or more of the beneficial interest in which is not owned, directly or indirectly, by persons other than qualifying persons or residents or citizens of the United States,

where the amount of the expenses deductible from gross income that are paid or payable by the company or trust, as the case may be, for its preceding fiscal period (or, in the case of its first fiscal period, that period) to persons that are not qualifying persons or residents or citizens of the United States is less than 50 per cent of its gross income for that period;

(f) an estate;

(g) a not-for-profit organization, provided that more than half of the beneficiaries, members or participants of the organization are qualifying persons or residents or citizens of the United States; or

(h) an organization described in paragraph 2 of Article XXI (Exempt organizations) and established for the purpose of providing benefits primarily to individuals who are qualifying persons, persons who were qualifying persons within the five preceding years, or residents or citizens of the United States.

  1. Where a person that is a resident of Canada and is not a qualifying person of Canada, or a person related thereto, is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business in Canada (other than the business of making or managing investments, unless those activities are carried on with customers in the ordinary course of business by a bank, an insurance company, a registered securities dealer or a deposit-taking financial institution), the benefits of the Convention shall apply to that resident person with respect to income derived from the United States in connection with or incidental to that trade or business, including any such income derived directly or indirectly by that resident person through one or more other persons that are residents of the United States. Income shall be deemed to be derived from the United States in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business in Canada only if that trade or business is substantial in relation to the activity carried on in the United States giving rise to the income in respect of which benefits provided under the Convention by the United States are claimed.
  2. A company that is a resident of Canada shall also be entitled to the benefits of Articles X (Dividends), XI (Interest) and XII (Royalties) if:

(a) its shares that represent more than 90 per cent of the aggregate vote and value represented by all of its shares (other than debt substitute shares) are owned, directly or indirectly, by persons each of whom is a qualifying person, a resident or citizen of the United States or a person who:

(i) is a resident of a country with which the United States has a comprehensive income tax convention and is entitled to all of the benefits provided by the United States under that convention;

(ii) would qualify for benefits under paragraphs 2 or 3 if that person were a resident of Canada (and, for the purposes of paragraph 3, if the business it carried on in the country of which it is a resident were carried on by it in Canada); and

(iii) would be entitled to a rate of United States tax under the convention between that person’s country of residence and the United States, in respect of the particular class of income for which benefits are being claimed under this Convention, that is at least as low as the rate applicable under this Convention; and

(b) the amount of the expenses deductible from gross income that are paid or payable by the company for its preceding fiscal period (or, in the case of its first fiscal period, that period) to persons that are not qualifying persons or residents or citizens of the United States is less than 50 per cent of the gross income of the company for that period.

  1. For the purposes of this Article:

(a) the term “recognized stock exchange” means:

(i) the Nasdaq System owned by the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. and any stock exchange registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a national securities exchange for purposes of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934;

(ii) Canadian stock exchanges that are “prescribed stock exchanges” under the Income Tax Act; and

(iii) any other stock exchange agreed upon by the Contracting States in an exchange of notes or by the competent authorities of the Contracting States;

(b) the term “not-for-profit organization” of a Contracting State means an entity created or established in that State and that is, by reason of its not-for-profit status, generally exempt from income taxation in that State, and includes a private foundation, charity, trade union, trade association or similar organization; and

(c) the term “debt substitute share” means:

(i) a share described in paragraph (e) of the definition “term preferred share” in the Income Tax Act, as it may be amended from time to time without changing the general principle thereof; and

(ii) such other type of share as may be agreed upon by the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

  1. Where a person that is a resident of Canada is not entitled under the preceding provisions of this Article to the benefits provided under the Convention by the United States, the competent authority of the United States shall, upon that person’s request, determine on the basis of all factors including the history, structure, ownership and operations of that person whether:

(a) its creation and existence did not have as a principal purpose the obtaining of benefits under the Convention that would not otherwise be available; or

(b) it would not be appropriate, having regard to the purpose of this Article, to deny the benefits of the Convention to that person.

The person shall be granted the benefits of the Convention by the United States where the competent authority determines that subparagraph (a) or (b) applies.

  1. It is understood that the fact that the preceding provisions of this Article apply only for the purposes of the application of the Convention by the United States shall not be construed as restricting in any manner the right of a Contracting State to deny benefits under the Convention where it can reasonably be concluded that to do otherwise would result in an abuse of the provisions of the Convention.”

Article 19

A new Article XXIXB (Taxes imposed by reason of death) shall be added to the Convention as follows:

“Article XXIXB

Taxes imposed by reason of death

  1. Where the property of an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State passes by reason of the individual’s death to an organization referred to in paragraph 1 of Article XXI (Exempt organizations), the tax consequences in a Contracting State arising out of the passing of the property shall apply as if the organization were a resident of that State.
  2. In determining the estate tax imposed by the United States, the estate of an individual (other than a citizen of the United States) who was a resident of Canada at the time of the individual’s death shall be allowed a unified credit equal to the greater of:

(a) the amount that bears the same ratio to the credit allowed under the law of the United States to the estate of a citizen of the United States as the value of the part of the individual’s gross estate that at the time of the individual’s death is situated in the United States bears to the value of the individual’s entire gross estate wherever situated; and

(b) the unified credit allowed to the estate of a nonresident not a citizen of the United States under the law of the United States.

The amount of any unified credit otherwise allowable under this paragraph shall be reduced by the amount of any credit previously allowed with respect to any gift made by the individual. A credit otherwise allowable under subparagraph (a) shall be allowed only if all information necessary for the verification and computation of the credit is provided.

  1. In determining the estate tax imposed by the United States on an individual’s estate with respect to property that passes to the surviving spouse of the individual (within the meaning of the law of the United States) and that would qualify for the estate tax marital deduction under the law of the United States if the surviving spouse were a citizen of the United States and all applicable elections were properly made (in this paragraph and paragraph 4 referred to as “qualifying property”), a non-refundable credit computed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 4 shall be allowed in addition to the unified credit allowed to the estate under paragraph 2 or under the law of the United States, provided that:

(a) the individual was at the time of death a citizen of the United States or a resident of either Contracting State;

(b) the surviving spouse was at the time of the individual’s death a resident of either Contracting State;

(c) if both the individual and the surviving spouse were residents of the United States at the time of the individual’s death, one or both was a citizen of Canada; and

(d) the executor of the decedent’s estate elects the benefits of this paragraph and waives irrevocably the benefits of any estate tax marital deduction that would be allowed under the law of the United States on a United States Federal estate tax return filed for the individual’s estate by the date on which a qualified domestic trust election could be made under the law of the United States.

  1. The amount of the credit allowed under paragraph 3 shall equal the lesser of:

(a) the unified credit allowed under paragraph 2 or under the law of the United States (determined without regard to any credit allowed previously with respect to any gift made by the individual), and

(b) the amount of estate tax that would otherwise be imposed by the United States on the transfer of qualifying property.

The amount of estate tax that would otherwise be imposed by the United States on the transfer of qualifying property shall equal the amount by which the estate tax (before allowable credits) that would be imposed by the United States if the qualifying property were included in computing the taxable estate exceeds the estate tax (before allowable credits) that would be so imposed if the qualifying property were not so included. Solely for purposes of determining other credits allowed under the law of the United States, the credit provided under paragraph 3 shall be allowed after such other credits.

  1. Where an individual was a resident of the United States immediately before the individual’s death, for the purposes of subsection 70(6) of the Income Tax Act, both the individual and the individual’s spouse shall be deemed to have been resident in Canada immediately before the individual’s death. Where a trust that would be a trust described in subsection 70(6) of that Act, if its trustees that were residents or citizens of the United States or domestic corporations under the law of the United States were residents of Canada, requests the competent authority of Canada to do so, the competent authority may agree, subject to terms and conditions satisfactory to such competent authority, to treat the trust for the purposes of that Act as being resident in Canada for such time as may be stipulated in the agreement.
  2. In determining the amount of Canadian tax payable by an individual who immediately before death was a resident of Canada, or by a trust described in subsection 70(6) of the Income Tax Act (or a trust which is treated as being resident in Canada under the provisions of paragraph 5), the amount of any Federal or state estate or inheritance taxes payable in the United States (not exceeding, where the individual was a citizen of the United States or a former citizen referred to in paragraph 2 of Article XXIX (Miscellaneous rules), the amount of estate and inheritance taxes that would have been payable if the individual were not a citizen or former citizen of the United States) in respect of property situated within the United States shall:

(a) to the extent that such estate or inheritance taxes are imposed upon the individual’s death, be allowed as a deduction from the amount of any Canadian tax otherwise payable by the individual for the taxation year in which the individual died on the total of:

(i) any income, profits or gains of the individual arising (within the meaning of paragraph 3 of Article XXIV (Elimination of double taxation)) in the United States in that year, and

(ii) where the value at the time of the individual’s death of the individual’s entire gross estate wherever situated (determined under the law of the United States) exceeded 1.2 million U.S. dollars or its equivalent in Canadian dollars, any income, profits or gains of the individual for that year from property situated in the United States at that time, and

(b) to the extent that such estate or inheritance taxes are imposed upon the death of the individual’s surviving spouse,

be allowed as a deduction from the amount of any Canadian tax otherwise payable by the trust for its taxation year in which that spouse dies on any income, profits or gains of the trust for that year arising (within the meaning of paragraph 3 of Article XXIV (Elimination of double taxation)) in the United States or from property situated in the United States at the time of death of the spouse.

For purposes of this paragraph, property shall be treated as situated within the United States if it is so treated for estate tax purposes under the law of the United States as in effect on March 17, 1995, subject to any subsequent changes thereof that the competent authorities of the Contracting States have agreed to apply for the purposes of this paragraph. The deduction allowed under this paragraph shall take into account the deduction for any income tax paid or accrued to the United States that is provided under paragraph 2(a), 4(a) or 5(b) of Article XXIV (Elimination of double taxation).

  1. In determining the amount of estate tax imposed by the United States on the estate of an individual who was a resident or citizen of the United States at the time of death, or upon the death of a surviving spouse with respect to a qualified domestic trust created by such an individual or the individual’s executor or surviving spouse, a credit shall be allowed against such tax imposed in respect of property situated outside the United States, for the federal and provincial income taxes payable in Canada in respect of such property by reason of the death of the individual or, in the case of a qualified domestic trust, the individual’s surviving spouse. Such credit shall be computed in accordance with the following rules:

(a) a credit otherwise allowable under this paragraph shall be allowed regardless of whether the identity of the taxpayer under the law of Canada corresponds to that under the law of the United States.

(b) the amount of a credit allowed under this paragraph shall be computed in accordance with the provisions and subject to the limitations of the law of the United States regarding credit for foreign death taxes (as it may be amended from time to time without changing the general principle hereof), as though the income tax imposed by Canada were a creditable tax under that law.

(c) a credit may be claimed under this paragraph for an amount of federal or provincial income tax payable in Canada only to the extent that no credit or deduction is claimed for such amount in determining any other tax imposed by the United States, other than the estate tax imposed on property in a qualified domestic trust upon the death of the surviving spouse.

  1. Provided that the value, at the time of death, of the entire gross estate wherever situated of an individual who was a resident of Canada (other than a citizen of the United States) at the time of death does not exceed 1.2 million U.S. dollars or its equivalent in Canadian dollars, the United States may impose its estate tax upon property forming part of the estate of the individual only if any gain derived by the individual from the alienation of such property would have been subject to income taxation by the United States in accordance with Article XIII (Gains).”

Article 20

  1. The appropriate authorities of the Contracting States shall consult within a three-year period from the date on which this Protocol enters into force with respect to further reductions in withholding taxes provided in the Convention, and with respect to the rules in Article XXIXA (Limitation on benefits) of the Convention.
  2. The appropriate authorities of the Contracting States shall consult after a three-year period from the date on which the Protocol enters into force in order to determine whether it is appropriate to make the exchange of notes referred to in Article XXVI (Mutual agreement procedure) of the Convention.

Article 21

  1. This Protocol shall be subject to ratification in accordance with the applicable procedures in Canada and the United States and instruments of ratification shall be exchanged as soon as possible.
  2. The Protocol shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification, and shall have effect:

(a) for tax withheld at the source on income referred to in Articles X (Dividends), XI (Interest), XII (Royalties) and XVIII (Pensions and annuities) of the Convention, except on income referred to in paragraph 5 of Article XVIII of the Convention (as it read before the entry into force of this Protocol), with respect to amounts paid or credited on or after the first day of the second month next following the date on which the Protocol enters into force, except that the reference in paragraph 2(a) of Article X (Dividends) of the Convention, as amended by the Protocol, to “5 per cent” shall be read, in its application to amounts paid or credited on or after that first day:

(i) before 1996, as “7 per cent”; and

(ii) after 1995 and before 1997, as “6 per cent”; and

(b) for other taxes, with respect to taxable years beginning on or after the first day of January next following the date on which the Protocol enters into force, except that the reference in paragraph 6 of Article X (Dividends) of the Convention, as amended by the Protocol, to “5 per cent” shall be read, in its application to taxable years beginning on or after that first day and ending before 1997, as “6 per cent”.

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, Article XXVIA (Assistance in collection) of the Convention shall have effect for revenue claims finally determined by a requesting State after the date that is 10 years before the date on which the Protocol enters into force.
  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, paragraphs 2 through 8 of Article XXIXB (Taxes imposed by reason of death) of the Convention (and paragraph 2 of Article II (Taxes covered) and paragraph 3(a) of Article XXIX (Miscellaneous rules) of the Convention, as amended by the Protocol, to the extent necessary to implement paragraphs 2 through 8 of Article XXIXB (Taxes imposed by reason of death) of the Convention) shall, notwithstanding any limitation imposed under the law of a Contracting State on the assessment, reassessment or refund with respect to a person’s return, have effect with respect to deaths occurring after the date on which the Protocol enters into force and, provided that any claim for refund by reason of this sentence is filed within one year of the date on which the Protocol enters into force or within the otherwise applicable period for filing such claims under domestic law, with respect to benefits provided under any of those paragraphs with respect to deaths occurring after November 10, 1988.
  3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, paragraph 2 of Article 3 of the Protocol shall have effect with respect to taxable years beginning on or after the first day of January next following the date on which the Protocol enters into force.

In witness whereof, the undersigned, duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Protocol.

Done in two copies at Washington this 17th day of March 1995, in the English and French languages, each text being equally authentic.